The machine tool industry is a "mother machine" industry, covering 8 small industries such as metal cutting machine tools, metal forming machine tools, casting machinery, woodworking machinery, measuring tools and gauges, abrasives, machine tool accessories, machine tool electrical appliances (including CNC systems) More than 20 branches are one of the most important strategic industries, and are highly valued in developed industrial countries. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, under the strategic planning and overall layout of the party and government, through the efforts of "One Five" and "Two Five", China has gradually established a complete machine tool industry system. During the "Cultural Revolution", China's machine tool industry was difficult to maintain in the face of severe interference. Although it achieved some development, it missed a precious golden development period of ten years and further widened the gap with the international advanced level. After the "Cultural Revolution", after any chaos, a restorative rectification was carried out. Especially since the 40 years of reform and opening up, China's machine tool industry has overcome many difficulties and insisted on the path of independent development. The goal of a strong country is moving forward.
I. Reform and opening up and the transformation of the machine tool industry (1978-2000)
After the reform and opening up, as the planned economy shifted to a market economy, China's machine tool industry also began a corresponding transformation, and thus ushered in a new stage of development.
1. Restorative rectification (1978-1980)
Since the summer of 1977, according to the unified deployment of the Ministry of Machinery Industry, the company has carried out enterprise management and rectification work centering on improving product quality, laying a good foundation for reform and opening up. By 1979, most of the key enterprises had reached the relevant acceptance standards, and on this basis, comprehensive quality management was carried out. At this time, the country has more than 1,400 machine tool companies above designated size. By 1980, 41 machine tool factories built 53,000 square meters of constant temperature workshops. At the same time, the planned distribution system that has been used for many years in the state's unified purchase and marketing system has been loosened, and China's machine tool industry has ushered in reform and opening up.
2. Marketization during the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" (1981-1985)
Affected by macroeconomic and other factors, the order volume of the machine tool industry declined year after year from 1979 to 1980. For this reason, the First Machinery Industry Ministry (referred to as the first machine department) in charge of the machine tool industry at that time proposed a policy of expanding service directions. On February 10, 1983, the Ministry of Machinery Industry issued the Trial Measures for Implementing the Principles of Implementing the Planned Economy and Adopting the Principle of Market Regulation as the Subsidiary Principle in the Machinery Industry, changing the single directive plan into three plan forms. By the mid-1990s, all machine tool products had been opened to the market. In the meantime, the cooperation between domestic machine tool factories and overseas machine tool tools enterprises has also begun. By 1985, 25 companies in the machine tool industry had signed 32 cooperative production agreements with 28 companies in 5 countries.
After the reform and opening up, the product level of the machine tool industry gradually increased, and product exports increased rapidly. In 1979, the export value of machine tools was 38 million US dollars. By 1997, the foreign exchange earnings of the machine tools had reached 280 million US dollars, which was 7 times that of 1979.
During this period, 48 national key technological transformation projects were arranged, 27 were key ministry projects, and an investment of 311.7 million yuan, which achieved significant results. Since the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" period, the state has begun to carry out technological transformation of key enterprises, key products and key processes in a planned way, thereby promoting the improvement of product quality and the development of new products.
3. Reform ushered in the transformation and development of the industry (1986-2000)
After entering the 1980s, the country's investment in technological transformation of machine tool companies has increased year by year. Through technological transformation, the industry's product development capabilities and manufacturing capabilities have been strengthened, management levels have been gradually improved, and the ability to adapt to market economies has gradually increased.
In addition to enterprises, the industry has 8 comprehensive research institutes, 37 professional research institutes and corporate design departments, forming a scientific research and development system for the machine tool industry. In addition to the introduction of technology, we have also begun to introduce foreign scientific and technological talents, make full use of international technical forces, and accelerate the development of China's machine tool industry.
In 1988, the establishment of the China Machine Tool and Tool Industry Association (CMTBA, for short) was a major event in the reform and opening up. The establishment of the Machine Tool Association conformed to the background of the international environment at that time, met the needs of the reform of the national economic system and the transformation of the industry's own development model, and established an efficient communication platform between machine tool enterprises and the government. After the association was established, it adhered to the characteristics of "civilization, industry, service, fairness and international correspondence", creating a good market environment for the entire industry. At the beginning of the establishment of the Association, the China International Machine Tool Fair (CIMT) was established, which established an important platform for mutual exchanges in the global machine tool industry. Zou Jiahua, then Vice Premier of the State Council, wrote the CIMT inscription "exchange technology, strengthen cooperation, expand trade, and jointly prosperity". Since then, he founded the China CNC Machine Tool Exhibition (CCMT) in 2000, which has contributed to the development of China's CNC machine tool industry.